International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy

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Mycological Profile of Otomycosis in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Cameroon

Received: 14 November 2023    Accepted: 6 December 2023    Published: 18 December 2023
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Abstract

The diagnosis of otomycosis is usually based on clinical signs, symptoms and predisposing factors to which the patient is exposed. Mycologic examination of samples is required for an adequate antifungal treatment. However, the access to this analysis is very low in low-income settings, and most of the treatments are probabilistic. We aimed to provide the mycologic profile of otomycosis in our environment. We carried out a descriptive and cross sectional study from October 2016 to May 2017 in the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde. Consenting patients with symptoms of otomycosis were included and samples from the external auditory canal were collected for fresh mount analysis and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium was done for up to 5 days. Pathogens were identified from their morphologic characteristics on low magnification. The prevalence was reported with 95% confidence interval, and qualitative variables were described with numbers and percentages. A total of 60 participants were included, with a mean age of 32.8 ± 15.8 years and a predominance of female participants (62%). The use of cotton swabs was the most frequent predisposing factor for otomycosis (50%). Itching was the commonest symptom (85%). The overall prevalence of otomycosis in the population was 66.7% (95% CI: 54.1-77.3%), with A. niger, Candida species, A. flavus and other Aspergillus species representing the most encountered fungi. Otomycosis is common in the otolaryngology service, affecting mostly young people and females. Treatment targeting A. niger like imidazole may be used as first line probabilistic antifungal treatments.

DOI 10.11648/j.ijidt.20230804.14
Published in International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy (Volume 8, Issue 4, December 2023)
Page(s) 141-145
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Mycologic, Profile, Otomycosis, Tertiary Hospital, Cameroon

References
[1] Vennewald I, Klemm, E. (2010) Otomycosis: Diagnosis and treatment. Clinics in Dermatology. 2010; 28 (2). doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2009.12.003.
[2] Debta P, Swain SK, Lenka S, Sahu MC. Otomycosis: A comprehensive review. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 2020; 14 (4). doi: 10.37506/ijfmt.v14i4.13013.
[3] K. M, Singh A, S. V. MR. Otomycosis, frequency, clinical features, predisposing factors and treatment implications. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020; 6 (4). doi: 10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20201279.
[4] Bojanović M, Ignjatović A, Stalević M, Arsić-Arsenijević V, Ranđelović M, Gerginić V, et al. Clinical Presentations, Cluster Analysis and Laboratory-Based Investigation of Aspergillus Otomycosis—A Single Center Experience. J Fungi 2022; 8 (3). doi: 10.3390/jof8030315.
[5] Sangaré I, Amona FM, Ouedraogo RWL, Zida A, Ouedraogo MS. Otomycosis in Africa: Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Medical Mycology. 2021; 31 (2). doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2021.101115.
[6] Anwar K, Gohar MS. Otomycosis; Clinical features, predisposing factors and treatment implications. Pakistan J Med Sci 2014; 30 (3). doi: 10.12669/pjms.303.4106.
[7] Lohoue Petmy J, Bengono Touré G, Founda Onana A. [A study of otomycoses in Yaoundé]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 1996; 117 (2).
[8] Alfred Itor E, Noubom M, Nangwat C, Aude Ngueguim D, Levis Kountchou C, Kammalac Thierry N, et al. Clinical and Microbiological Epidemiology of Otomycosis in the Centre Region of Cameroon. Eur J Clin Biomed Sci 2020; 6 (5). doi: 10.11648/j.ejcbs.20200605.12.
[9] Dean AG, Arner TG, Sunki G, Friedman R, Lantinga M, Sangam S, et al. Epi InfoTM, a database and statistics program for public health professionals. 2011.
[10] World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. J Am Coll Dent 2014; 81 (3). doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199241323.003.0025.
[11] Viswanatha B. Otomycosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: Comparative study and literature review. Ear, Nose and Throat Journal. 2012; 91 (3). doi: 10.1177/014556131209100308.
[12] Değerli K, Ecemiş T, Günhan K, Başkesen T, Kal E. [Agents of otomycosis in Manisa region, Turkey, 1995-2011]. Mikrobiyol Bul 2012; 46 (1).
[13] Tokarzewski S, Ziółkowska G, Nowakiewicz A. Susceptibility testing of Aspergillus niger strains isolated from poultry to antifungal drugs - A comparative study of the disk diffusion, broth microdilution (M 38-A) and Etest® methods. Pol J Vet Sci 2012; 15 (1). doi: 10.2478/v10181-011-0123-7.
[14] Arora RK, Arora PK. A Clinical Study of Otomycosis. Int J Med Biomed Stud 2022; 6 (3). doi: 10.32553/ijmbs.v6i3.2474.
[15] Kumar A. Fungal spectrum in otomycosis patients. JK Sci 2005; 7 (3).
[16] McClenny N. Laboratory detection and identification of Aspergillus species by microscopic observation and culture: The traditional approach. Med Mycol 2005; 43 (SUPPL.1). doi: 10.1080/13693780500052222.
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    Somo Iwewe, Y., Tabe Ekwin, F., Bola Siafa, A., Betbeui Chafa, A., Sadeu Wafeu, G., et al. (2023). Mycological Profile of Otomycosis in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Cameroon. International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 8(4), 141-145. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijidt.20230804.14

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    ACS Style

    Somo Iwewe, Y.; Tabe Ekwin, F.; Bola Siafa, A.; Betbeui Chafa, A.; Sadeu Wafeu, G., et al. Mycological Profile of Otomycosis in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Cameroon. Int. J. Infect. Dis. Ther. 2023, 8(4), 141-145. doi: 10.11648/j.ijidt.20230804.14

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    AMA Style

    Somo Iwewe Y, Tabe Ekwin F, Bola Siafa A, Betbeui Chafa A, Sadeu Wafeu G, et al. Mycological Profile of Otomycosis in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Cameroon. Int J Infect Dis Ther. 2023;8(4):141-145. doi: 10.11648/j.ijidt.20230804.14

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ijidt.20230804.14,
      author = {Yves Somo Iwewe and Francis Tabe Ekwin and Antoine Bola Siafa and Anicette Betbeui Chafa and Guy Sadeu Wafeu and Jean Paul Dzoyem and Simon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop},
      title = {Mycological Profile of Otomycosis in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Cameroon},
      journal = {International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {141-145},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ijidt.20230804.14},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijidt.20230804.14},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijidt.20230804.14},
      abstract = {The diagnosis of otomycosis is usually based on clinical signs, symptoms and predisposing factors to which the patient is exposed. Mycologic examination of samples is required for an adequate antifungal treatment. However, the access to this analysis is very low in low-income settings, and most of the treatments are probabilistic. We aimed to provide the mycologic profile of otomycosis in our environment. We carried out a descriptive and cross sectional study from October 2016 to May 2017 in the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde. Consenting patients with symptoms of otomycosis were included and samples from the external auditory canal were collected for fresh mount analysis and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium was done for up to 5 days. Pathogens were identified from their morphologic characteristics on low magnification. The prevalence was reported with 95% confidence interval, and qualitative variables were described with numbers and percentages. A total of 60 participants were included, with a mean age of 32.8 ± 15.8 years and a predominance of female participants (62%). The use of cotton swabs was the most frequent predisposing factor for otomycosis (50%). Itching was the commonest symptom (85%). The overall prevalence of otomycosis in the population was 66.7% (95% CI: 54.1-77.3%), with A. niger, Candida species, A. flavus and other Aspergillus species representing the most encountered fungi. Otomycosis is common in the otolaryngology service, affecting mostly young people and females. Treatment targeting A. niger like imidazole may be used as first line probabilistic antifungal treatments.
    },
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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    AU  - Yves Somo Iwewe
    AU  - Francis Tabe Ekwin
    AU  - Antoine Bola Siafa
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    JO  - International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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    PB  - Science Publishing Group
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    AB  - The diagnosis of otomycosis is usually based on clinical signs, symptoms and predisposing factors to which the patient is exposed. Mycologic examination of samples is required for an adequate antifungal treatment. However, the access to this analysis is very low in low-income settings, and most of the treatments are probabilistic. We aimed to provide the mycologic profile of otomycosis in our environment. We carried out a descriptive and cross sectional study from October 2016 to May 2017 in the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde. Consenting patients with symptoms of otomycosis were included and samples from the external auditory canal were collected for fresh mount analysis and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium was done for up to 5 days. Pathogens were identified from their morphologic characteristics on low magnification. The prevalence was reported with 95% confidence interval, and qualitative variables were described with numbers and percentages. A total of 60 participants were included, with a mean age of 32.8 ± 15.8 years and a predominance of female participants (62%). The use of cotton swabs was the most frequent predisposing factor for otomycosis (50%). Itching was the commonest symptom (85%). The overall prevalence of otomycosis in the population was 66.7% (95% CI: 54.1-77.3%), with A. niger, Candida species, A. flavus and other Aspergillus species representing the most encountered fungi. Otomycosis is common in the otolaryngology service, affecting mostly young people and females. Treatment targeting A. niger like imidazole may be used as first line probabilistic antifungal treatments.
    
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Author Information
  • Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

  • Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Protestant University of Central Africa Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Department of Ophthalmology-ENT-Stomatology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Doctoral School, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Higher Institute for Scientific and Medical Research (ISM), Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

  • Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

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