Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2020, Page: 118-126
Clinical Course and Outcome of 395 Covid 19 Patients Admitted to One Hospital in Jeddah- Saudi Arabia
Samar Assem Badreddine, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Mohammed Zammo, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah Abdelfattah Elhosiny, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Mohanna Walid Alhomsy, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Yasser Aldabbagh, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abdullah Sameer Mansouri, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Sara Hesham Taha, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Reem Yahya ALQuraa, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Nahdi, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Ayman Eissa, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Hanan Mohammed Faruqui, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Nehal Ahmed, Department of Infection Control, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Ahmad Alzahrani, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Nezar Bahabri, Department of Internal Medicine, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Received: Sep. 17, 2020;       Accepted: Oct. 9, 2020;       Published: Oct. 17, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijidt.20200504.13      View  101      Downloads  92
Abstract
Background: Since the first case of SARS-CoV 2 has been reported from Wuhan China back in December 2019, the virus has spread all over the world and has so far infected more than 35 million humans and led to more than one million deaths woldwide. We describe in this paper the clinical characteristics and outcome of PCR confirmed Covid 19 patients that were admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective review of patients that had positive PCR on nasopharyngeal swab for SARS Cov2 and that were admitted and discharged from a tertiary care hospital in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between March and July 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical data were collected. The clinical course of patients was reviewed. Risk factors for involvement of lower respiratory tract (Pneumonia), for need for ICU and for death were analyzed. Results: The records of total of 395 patients were reviewed. 15% of Covid 19 patients in our population were completely asymptomatic, one quarter of which had abnormalities on chest imaging. Among the patients with one or more Covid 19 symptoms, 75% had lower respiratory tract involvement and one quarter had normal chest imaging. One third of all patients developed leukopenia and around 2 thirds had lymphocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was not common (occurred in 15%), 29% of our patients had CRP>10 and 25.1% had elevated ALT (not exceeding 5 times upper normal). Nine percent of our patients needed ICU admission, 3.8% needed mechanical ventilation. 9 patients (2.3%) in our population died. Advancing age, increasing BMI, and smoking history were significantly associated with increased mortality. Developing abnormalities on chest imaging (Pneumonia) was significantly associated with increasing BMI, advancing age, not receiving BCG vaccination at birth, history of smoking and presence of co-morbidities (p value less 0.05 with all these variables). Blood group and presence of co-morbidities was significantly associated with need for ICU care but not with mortality. In our population neither ethnicity, nor gender, had significant association with hospital course or outcome, and no one younger than 45 years and no one with BMI less than 24 died. Conclusion: Advancing age, increasing BMI and history of smoking were found to be significant risk factors for mortality in our population. History of Bacille calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination was significantly associated with less involvement of lower respiratory tract but had no significant association with final outcome. Asymptomatic Covid 19 is more of a silent active infection rather than a silent inactive carrier state.
Keywords
Covid 19, Saudi Arabia, BCG Vaccine
To cite this article
Samar Assem Badreddine, Mohammed Zammo, Abdullah Abdelfattah Elhosiny, Mohanna Walid Alhomsy, Yasser Aldabbagh, Abdullah Sameer Mansouri, Sara Hesham Taha, Reem Yahya ALQuraa, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Nahdi, Ayman Eissa, Hanan Mohammed Faruqui, Nehal Ahmed, Ahmad Alzahrani, Nezar Bahabri, Clinical Course and Outcome of 395 Covid 19 Patients Admitted to One Hospital in Jeddah- Saudi Arabia, International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2020, pp. 118-126. doi: 10.11648/j.ijidt.20200504.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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